The arcade version of the game is referenced in Iain Banks 1984 novel The Wasp Factory.
Space Invaders was named #14 in the “Top 25 Atari 2600” Games poll in Retro Gamer Magazine (Issue 46).
In an episode of The Simpsons TVS show titled "Who Shot Mr. Burns? Part Two" there is a mention of Space Invaders in this exchange between Groundskeeper Willie and Chief Wiggum:
Willie: It's impossible for me to fire a pistol. If you'll check me medical records, you'll see I have a cripplin' arthritis in me index fingerrrs. Look at 'em! [holds them up] I got it from "Space Invaders" in 1977.
Wiggum: Aw, yeah. That was a pretty addictive video game.
Willie: [surprised] Video game?
Space Invaders is referenced in the Futurama episode Anthology of Interest II. The episode consists of three shorts; one of which involves Fry asking the "what-if" machine "what if life was more like a video game." The "Invaders" are actually alien spacecrafts. There is a scene that recreates the game; the scene even involves Fry shooting through his own shield.
The "space" invaders are creatures from the sea-octopi, squid, and crabs. The resemblance is much easier to spot in the coin-op version.
It is rumored that the arcade version of this game was responsible for a coin shortage in Japan upon it's initial release.
It is said that people were buying Atari 2600 just so they could play Space Invaders at home.
Space Invaders for the Atari 2600 was the first home license of a coin-op video game.